Generation of Computer

Computer Of Generation

First Generation of Computers (1942-1955)

The period of the first generation was 1942-1956.This generation computer used vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for Central Processing Unit. The two notable machines of this era were the UNIVAC and ENIAC machines – the UNIVAC is the first every commercial computer which was purchased in 1951 by a business – the US Census Bureau. The computers in this generation used machine code as a programming language. These computers were limited to solving one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape. 


Advantages:
  • Faster than its predecessor (Before First Generation).
  • The vacuum tube was used.
  • These computers could calculate data in millisecond (10-3 Second).


Disadvantage:
  • Computer huge in size.
  • Unreliable
  • Very costly.
  • Consumed a large amount of heat.
  • Air condition required.
  • Not portable because of its size.
  • Maintenance of computer was required.


Second Generation Computers (1956-1965)

In this generation, Transistor replaced Vacuum tube. The period of the second generation was 1956-1965. By using Transistor computer was becoming more reliable, less expensive, consume less power than first generation computer. In this generation assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL was used. The computers used batch processing. The examples of second generation computers are IBM 1620, IBM 7094 seriesIBM 1400 series and CDC 164, UNIVAC 1108 etc.
Advantages:
  • Faster than the First Generation.
  • Transistor used which was superior to Vacuum tube.
  • More reliable
  • Cheaper than the first generation.
  • Size reduced.
  • Magnetic tape was used which was more reliable than the Punchcard.
  • Less heat generates.

Disadvantages:
  • Air condition still required.
  • Still big.
  • Too much Costly.

Third Generation Computers (1966-1975)

In this generation, IC (Integrated Circuit) was used. It was developed by Jack Kilby. It was much faster than the second generation computer. These generation computers were used keyboards and monitors and also used the operating system. These generation computers were smaller in size, reliable and efficient. From this generation onward high-level languages were used such as FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.

Advantages:
  • Faster and reliable than the Second generation.
  • Used less power
  • Smaller in size
  • Commercially available
  • Large storage capacity

Disadvantages:
  •  Air condition still required
  • Still costlier

Fourth Generation Computers (1975-Present)

The computer we see today is fourth generation computer. The fourth generation computers were the extension of third-generation technology. The fourth generation computers emerged with the development of the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration).The microprocessor is used in fourth generation computer. This generation computer is faster, reliable, cost-effective.

Advantages:
  • The computer becomes affordable to the mass.
  • The speed, accuracy, and reliability of the computers were improved.
  •  Many high-level languages were developed in the fourth generation such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++, Java languages.
  • No AC required.
  • Less power consumption.

Disadvantages:
  • ·         Sophisticated and complex technologies required.

Fifth Generation Computers (Artificial Intelligent)

The fifth generation computer still in development. This generation computer becomes equipped with artificial intelligence which means a computer can think of its own by using some advanced language. Computers can understand spoken words & imitate human reasoning. It Can respond to its surroundings using different types of sensors.

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